What is Bone Marrow Transplant? A bone marrow is a sponge like material within the bones where the body makes and stores blood cells. A bone marrow transplant is recommended by our doctors at Med Treatment when unhealthy or damaged bone marrow stem cells need to be replaced by functioning, healthier ones. This process requires the patient to undergo surgery. Bone Marrow Transplant is a treatment therapy for cancer or diseases related to the bone marrow. During bone marrow transplant, the donor's or the patient's stem cells of the bone marrow are extracted, filtered and given back to the patient. In this process, the unhealthy bone marrow will be eliminated and healthy bone marrow cells will be transfused. Although bone marrow transplant is not a standard treatment, it is used in the treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, lymphoma, immune deficiency disorders, and some tumor cancers. The stem cells that are used in this procedure, need to be acquired from the centre of the bone known as the marrow. This process is known as harvesting. Contact us today for more information on getting a bone marrow transplant in India.
INDICATIONS This procedure is most commonly performed when patients are suffering from conditions such as leukaemia, aplastic anaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or thalassaemia major. Typically, doctors recommend one of the following three types of bone marrow transplantations - 1. An Auto Logous Transplant: In this approach, it is possible to take stem cells from the patient's blood itself. 2. A Syngeneic Transplant: In some cases, if the patient has an identical twin, it is possible to take stem cells from this sibling. 3. An Allogeneic Transplant: In this approach, the stem cells can be provided by the brother or sister of the patient who is not necessarily a twin. Here, the donor can also be a close relative or someone with absolutely no connection with the patient, as long as the genetic makeup of the stem cells match those of the patient's. Modern science has recently discovered that the umbilical cord is also a great source of stem cells required to cure many diseases. It is a common practice for expecting parents to preserve blood from the cord at the time of birth by signing up with blood and cord banks.
PRE-PROCEDURE Before the surgery, our doctor will run a few tests to make sure that you are a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. You will be asked to undergo a physical exam along with a few blood tests and checks to assess the health of your heart, lungs, liver and other organs. You will be asked to visit the hospital before you transplant to get a central venous catheter placed in your vein through your chest. You will also be given a high dose of chemotherapy or radiation for about 10 days. This kills all the cancer cells if you have any and also briefly weakens your immune system, preventing it from fighting the new cells.
DURING PROCEDURE Before the transplant, the donor must also be put under anaesthesia, allowing the surgeon to easily and painlessly extract the cells by inserting needles in the region around his or he pelvic bone. The surgeon tests the cells to make sure they are clean and healthy, after which they are preserved until the scheduled transplant. Before the surgery, the patient is also given anaesthesia along with anti-cancer medication. The healthy stem cells are transferred into the body of the patient using an intravenous method. The entire BMT procedure takes about 3 to 4 hours from the time the stem cells enter the body and reach and bone marrow to start producing healthy cells. This process is known as engraftment.
POST PROCEDURE It is ideal to pursue this procedure in the best hospitals for bone marrow transplant in India. this helps make sure that proper care of the patient is taken post-surgery. The several weeks or months you spend in the hospital after the transplant help you regain your immunity. During you stay you will also have to undergo several blood transfusions.
RISK AND COMPLICATIONS Typically, the donor is under no risk because only a small amount of the bone marrow is removed from his body. The usual symptoms that he may have are stiffness, slight pain and weakness for a few days. On the other hand, the patient is at the risk of some of the following minor or major complications -
Rashes or blisters
Change in appetite
Blood in your stool
Tea coloured urine
In some rare cases, graft-versus-host diseases can become a long-lasting condition. In this case, you may get -
Pain in the joints
Sores in your mouth
Trouble with your breathing
Irritation in your sexual organs.
MORE INFO The success rate of this procedure depends on factors such as your age, your overall health and how it affects your disease. Although the process is very effective in doing away with the distress of the patient, it is very expensive. Approximate Cost : $24,000 - $33,000 Duration : 14-21 Days. Get in touch with our doctors to find out the bone marrow transplant cost in India today!